Lloyd Jones M, Wight J, Paisley S, Knight C. Control of bleeding in patients with haemophilia a with inhibitors: a systematic review. Haemophilia. 2003 Jul;9(4):464-520.

This paper reports a systematic review of the best available evidence of clinical effectiveness in the treatment of acute bleeding in haemophilia A patients with inhibitors. Because of the lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on this topic, broad inclusion criteria with regard to study design were applied in order to assess the best available evidence for each intervention. Because of the clinical and methodological heterogeneity of the evidence, it was not appropriate to pool data across studies; instead, data were synthesized using tabulation and qualitative narrative assessment. No evidence was found to support the use of high-dose factor VIII (FVIII) in bleeding episodes. However in surgery it was found to be highly successful (100%) for low-titre, low-responding inhibitors although not reliable for high-responding inhibitors. Porcine FVIII (pFVIII) was effective in the control of severe bleeding episodes with high-titre or high-responding inhibitors (100%) and in 60-90% of surgical procedures. Activated prothrombin complex concentrates (APCCs) appear to be more effective than prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) in the control of mild to severe bleeding episodes. There was no good evidence for the use of PCCs in surgery. APCCs controlled bleeding in approximately 90% of surgical episodes. Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) controlled 70-100% of mild to severe bleeding episodes with high-responding inhibitors, and achieved better results when used early. It was effective in 60-100% of surgical episodes. Doses varied from study to study, and side-effects from mild to infrequent but serious adverse events were reported. The quality of the evidence is variable. Limited evidence relating to other treatment options is also included in the review.

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